Abstract: In single positive multi-label learning (SPML), only one of multiple positive labels is observed for each instance. The previous work trains the model by simply treating unobserved labels as negative ones, and designs the regularization to constrain the number of expected positive labels. However, in many real-world scenarios, the true number of positive labels is unavailable, making such methods less applicable. In this paper, we propose to solve SPML problems by designing a Label-Aware global Consistency (LAC) regularization, which leverages the manifold structure information to enhance the recovery of potential positive labels. On one hand, we first perform pseudo-labeling for each unobserved label based on its prediction probability. The consistency regularization is then imposed on model outputs to balance the fitting of identified labels and exploring of potential positive labels. On the other hand, by enforcing label-wise embeddings to maintain global consistency, LAC loss encourages the model to learn more distinctive representations, which is beneficial for recovering the information of potential positive labels. Experiments on multiple benchmark datasets validate that the proposed method can achieve state-of-the-art performance for solving SPML tasks.