Modality-Independent Teachers Meet Weakly-Supervised Audio-Visual Event Parser

Published: 21 Sept 2023, Last Modified: 02 Nov 2023NeurIPS 2023 posterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Keywords: Audio-Visual Video Parsing, Audio-Visual Learning
Abstract: Audio-visual learning has been a major pillar of multi-modal machine learning, where the community mostly focused on its $\textit{modality-aligned}$ setting, $\textit{i.e.}$, the audio and visual modality are $\textit{both}$ assumed to signal the prediction target. With the Look, Listen, and Parse dataset (LLP), we investigate the under-explored $\textit{unaligned}$ setting, where the goal is to recognize audio and visual events in a video with only weak labels observed. Such weak video-level labels only tell what events happen without knowing the modality they are perceived (audio, visual, or both). To enhance learning in this challenging setting, we incorporate large-scale contrastively pre-trained models as the modality teachers. A simple, effective, and generic method, termed $\textbf{V}$isual-$\textbf{A}$udio $\textbf{L}$abel Elab$\textbf{or}$ation (VALOR), is innovated to harvest modality labels for the training events. Empirical studies show that the harvested labels significantly improve an attentional baseline by $\textbf{8.0}$ in average F-score (Type@AV). Surprisingly, we found that modality-independent teachers outperform their modality-fused counterparts since they are noise-proof from the other potentially unaligned modality. Moreover, our best model achieves the new state-of-the-art on all metrics of LLP by a substantial margin ($\textbf{+5.4}$ F-score for Type@AV). VALOR is further generalized to Audio-Visual Event Localization and achieves the new state-of-the-art as well.
Supplementary Material: zip
Submission Number: 4451