- Keywords: Adversarial attack, LabelFool, Imperceptibility, Label space
- TL;DR: A trick on adversarial samples so that the mis-classified labels are imperceptible in the label space to human observers
- Abstract: It is widely known that well-designed perturbations can cause state-of-the-art machine learning classifiers to mis-label an image, with sufficiently small perturbations that are imperceptible to the human eyes. However, by detecting the inconsistency between the image and wrong label, the human observer would be alerted of the attack. In this paper, we aim to design attacks that not only make classifiers generate wrong labels, but also make the wrong labels imperceptible to human observers. To achieve this, we propose an algorithm called LabelFool which identifies a target label similar to the ground truth label and finds a perturbation of the image for this target label. We first find the target label for an input image by a probability model, then move the input in the feature space towards the target label. Subjective studies on ImageNet show that in the label space, our attack is much less recognizable by human observers, while objective experimental results on ImageNet show that we maintain similar performance in the image space as well as attack rates to state-of-the-art attack algorithms.