- Keywords: Semi-supervised learning, pseudo-labeling, deep semi-supervised learning, confirmation bias, image classification
- TL;DR: Pseudo-labeling has shown to be a weak alternative for semi-supervised learning. We, conversely, demonstrate that dealing with confirmation bias with several regularizations makes pseudo-labeling a suitable approach.
- Abstract: Semi-supervised learning, i.e. jointly learning from labeled an unlabeled samples, is an active research topic due to its key role on relaxing human annotation constraints. In the context of image classification, recent advances to learn from unlabeled samples are mainly focused on consistency regularization methods that encourage invariant predictions for different perturbations of unlabeled samples. We, conversely, propose to learn from unlabeled data by generating soft pseudo-labels using the network predictions. We show that a naive pseudo-labeling overfits to incorrect pseudo-labels due to the so-called confirmation bias and demonstrate that mixup augmentation and setting a minimum number of labeled samples per mini-batch are effective regularization techniques for reducing it. The proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art results in CIFAR-10/100 and Mini-ImageNet despite being much simpler than other state-of-the-art. These results demonstrate that pseudo-labeling can outperform consistency regularization methods, while the opposite was supposed in previous work. Code will be made available.
- Code: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1qaVu1RU4pvXewwxNvTXDvQrahFnLTPl3/view?usp=sharing