Towards End-to-End Embodied Decision Making with Multi-modal Large Language Model: Explorations with GPT4-Vision and Beyond

Published: 07 Nov 2023, Last Modified: 21 Nov 2023FMDM@NeurIPS2023EveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Keywords: Embodied AI, Decision Making, Multimodal Large Language Model, New Benchmark
TL;DR: Powerful Multimodal LLM like GPT4-Vision makes End-to-End embodied decision making more possible than ever (plus: New Benchmark Proposed).
Abstract: In this study, we explore the potential of Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) in improving embodied decision-making processes for agents. While Large Language Models (LLMs) have been widely used due to their advanced reasoning skills and vast world knowledge, MLLMs like GPT4-Vision offer enhanced visual understanding and reasoning capabilities. We investigate whether state-of-the-art MLLMs can handle embodied decision-making in an end-to-end manner and whether collaborations between LLMs and MLLMs can enhance decision-making. To address these questions, we introduce a new benchmark called PCA-EVAL, which evaluates embodied decision-making from the perspectives of Perception, Cognition, and Action. Additionally, we propose HOLMES, a multi-agent cooperation framework that allows LLMs to leverage MLLMs and APIs to gather multimodal information for informed decision-making. We compare end-to-end embodied decision-making and HOLMES on our benchmark and find that the GPT4-Vision model demonstrates strong end-to-end embodied decision-making abilities, outperforming GPT4-HOLMES in terms of average decision accuracy (+3%). However, this performance is exclusive to the latest GPT4-Vision model, surpassing the open-source state-of-the-art MLLM by 26%. Our results indicate that powerful MLLMs like GPT4-Vision hold promise for decision-making in embodied agents, offering new avenues for MLLM research. Code and data are open at
Submission Number: 42