- TL;DR: We propose a framework to study policy ensembles that cannot be cloned.
- Abstract: Imitation learning can reproduce policies by observing experts, which poses a problem regarding policy propriety. Policies, such as human, or policies on deployed robots, can all be cloned without consent from the owners. How can we protect our proprietary policies from cloning by an external observer? To answer this question we introduce a new reinforcement learning framework, where we train an ensemble of optimal policies, whose demonstrations are guaranteed to be useless for an external observer. We formulate this idea by a constrained optimization problem, where the objective is to improve proprietary policies, and at the same time deteriorate the virtual policy of an eventual external observer. We design a tractable algorithm to solve this new optimization problem by modifying the standard policy gradient algorithm. It appears such problem formulation admits plausible interpretations of confidentiality, adversarial behaviour, which enables a broader perspective of this work. We demonstrate explicitly the existence of such 'non-clonable' ensembles, providing a solution to the above optimization problem, which is calculated by our modified policy gradient algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first work regarding the protection and privacy of policies in Reinforcement Learning.
- Keywords: Imitation Learning, Reinforcement Learning, Representation Learning