Tailoring Self-Attention for Graph via Rooted Subtrees

Published: 21 Sept 2023, Last Modified: 02 Nov 2023NeurIPS 2023 posterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Keywords: Graph Based Learning
TL;DR: We design an efficient multi-hop graph attention mechanism based on rooted subtrees.
Abstract: Attention mechanisms have made significant strides in graph learning, yet they still exhibit notable limitations: local attention faces challenges in capturing long-range information due to the inherent problems of the message-passing scheme, while global attention cannot reflect the hierarchical neighborhood structure and fails to capture fine-grained local information. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-hop graph attention mechanism, named Subtree Attention (STA), to address the aforementioned issues. STA seamlessly bridges the fully-attentional structure and the rooted subtree, with theoretical proof that STA approximates the global attention under extreme settings. By allowing direct computation of attention weights among multi-hop neighbors, STA mitigates the inherent problems in existing graph attention mechanisms. Further we devise an efficient form for STA by employing kernelized softmax, which yields a linear time complexity. Our resulting GNN architecture, the STAGNN, presents a simple yet performant STA-based graph neural network leveraging a hop-aware attention strategy. Comprehensive evaluations on ten node classification datasets demonstrate that STA-based models outperform existing graph transformers and mainstream GNNs. The code is available at https://github.com/LUMIA-Group/SubTree-Attention.
Supplementary Material: zip
Submission Number: 11262