Discrete Restricted Boltzmann Machines

Guido F. Montufar, Jason Morton

Jan 17, 2013 (modified: Jan 17, 2013) ICLR 2013 conference submission readers: everyone
  • Decision: conferenceOral-iclr2013-conference
  • Abstract: In this paper we describe discrete restricted Boltzmann machines: graphical probability models with bipartite interactions between discrete visible and hidden variables. These models generalize standard binary restricted Boltzmann machines and discrete na'ive Bayes models. For a given number of visible variables and cardinalities of their state spaces, we bound the number of hidden variables, depending on the cardinalities of their state spaces, for which the model is a universal approximator of probability distributions. More generally, we describe tractable exponential subfamilies and use them to bound the maximal and expected Kullback-Leibler approximation errors of these models from above. We discuss inference functions, mixtures of product distributions with shared parameters, and patterns of strong modes of probability distributions represented by discrete restricted Boltzmann machines in terms of configurations of projected products of simplices in normal fans of products of simplices. Finally, we use tropicalization and coding theory to study the geometry of these models, and show that in many cases they have the expected dimension but in some cases they do not. Keywords: expected dimension, tropical statistical model, distributed representation, q-ary variable, Kullback-Leibler divergence, hierarchical model, mixture model, Hadamard product, universal approximation, covering code
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