- Keywords: deep learning, unsupervised learning, domain adaptation, self-supervision, robustness
- Abstract: A model must adapt itself to generalize to new and different data during testing. This is the setting of fully test-time adaptation given only unlabeled test data and the model parameters. We propose test-time entropy minimization (tent): we optimize for model confidence as measured by the entropy of its predictions. During testing, we adapt the model features by estimating normalization statistics and optimizing channel-wise affine transformations. Tent improves robustness to corruptions for image classification on ImageNet and CIFAR-10/100 and achieves state-of-the-art error on ImageNet-C for ResNet-50. Tent shows the feasibility of target-only domain adaptation for digit classification from SVHN to MNIST/MNIST-M/USPS and semantic segmentation from GTA to Cityscapes.
- One-sentence Summary: Deep networks can generalize better during testing by adapting to feedback from their own predictions.
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