Keywords: deep learning, unsupervised learning, domain adaptation, self-supervision, robustness
Abstract: A model must adapt itself to generalize to new and different data during testing. In this setting of fully test-time adaptation the model has only the test data and its own parameters. We propose to adapt by test entropy minimization (tent): we optimize the model for confidence as measured by the entropy of its predictions. Our method estimates normalization statistics and optimizes channel-wise affine transformations to update online on each batch. Tent reduces generalization error for image classification on corrupted ImageNet and CIFAR-10/100 and reaches a new state-of-the-art error on ImageNet-C. Tent handles source-free domain adaptation on digit recognition from SVHN to MNIST/MNIST-M/USPS, on semantic segmentation from GTA to Cityscapes, and on the VisDA-C benchmark. These results are achieved in one epoch of test-time optimization without altering training.
One-sentence Summary: Deep networks can generalize better during testing by adapting to feedback from their own predictions.
Supplementary Material: zip
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Code: [![github](/images/github_icon.svg) DequanWang/tent](https://github.com/DequanWang/tent)
Data: [CIFAR-10](https://paperswithcode.com/dataset/cifar-10), [CIFAR-100](https://paperswithcode.com/dataset/cifar-100), [ImageNet-C](https://paperswithcode.com/dataset/imagenet-c), [MNIST](https://paperswithcode.com/dataset/mnist), [SVHN](https://paperswithcode.com/dataset/svhn)