Fine-Tuned Language Models Generate Stable Inorganic Materials as Text

Published: 16 Jan 2024, Last Modified: 05 Mar 2024ICLR 2024 posterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
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Keywords: generative model, large language model, stable materials, AI for science
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TL;DR: We fine-tune LLMs on string representations of crystals and generate new stable materials.
Abstract: We propose fine-tuning large language models for generation of stable materials. While unorthodox, fine-tuning large language models on text-encoded atomistic data is simple to implement yet reliable, with around 90\% of sampled structures obeying physical constraints on atom positions and charges. Using energy above hull calculations from both learned ML potentials and gold-standard DFT calculations, we show that our strongest model (fine-tuned LLaMA-2 70B) can generate materials predicted to be metastable at about twice the rate (49\% vs 28\%) of CDVAE, a competing diffusion model. Because of text prompting's inherent flexibility, our models can simultaneously be used for unconditional generation of stable material, infilling of partial structures and text-conditional generation. Finally, we show that language models' ability to capture key symmetries of crystal structures improves with model scale, suggesting that the biases of pretrained LLMs are surprisingly well-suited for atomistic data.
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Primary Area: applications to physical sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, etc.)
Submission Number: 5580