Can Large Language Models Infer Causation from Correlation?

Published: 16 Jan 2024, Last Modified: 15 Apr 2024ICLR 2024 posterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
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Keywords: Large Language Models, Natural Language Inference, Causal Reasoning, Correlation-to-Causation Inference, Benchmark Dataset, Causal Discovery
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TL;DR: We propose Corr2Cause, the first dataset to infer causation from correlation by pure reasoning, and test 17 LLMs' performance on it.
Abstract: Causal inference is one of the hallmarks of human intelligence. While the field of CausalNLP has attracted much interest in the recent years, existing causal inference datasets in NLP primarily rely on discovering causality from empirical knowledge (e.g., commonsense knowledge). In this work, we propose the first benchmark dataset to test the pure causal inference skills of large language models (LLMs). Specifically, we formulate a novel task Corr2Cause, which takes a set of correlational statements and determines the causal relationship between the variables. We curate a large-scale dataset of more than 200K samples, on which we evaluate seventeen existing LLMs. Through our experiments, we identify a key shortcoming of LLMs in terms of their causal inference skills, and show that these models achieve almost close to random performance on the task. This shortcoming is somewhat mitigated when we try to re-purpose LLMs for this skill via finetuning, but we find that these models still fail to generalize – they can only perform causal inference in in-distribution settings when variable names and textual expressions used in the queries are similar to those in the training set, but fail in out-of-distribution settings generated by perturbing these queries. Corr2Cause is a challenging task for LLMs, and can be helpful in guiding future research on improving LLMs’ pure reasoning skills and generalizability. Our data is at Our code is at
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Primary Area: causal reasoning
Submission Number: 8089