Revisiting Pseudo-Label for Single-Positive Multi-Label Learning
Abstract: To deal with the challenge of high cost of annotating all relevant labels for each example in multi-label learning, single-positive multi-label learning (SPMLL) has been studied in recent years, where each example is annotated with only one positive label. By adopting pseudo-label generation, i.e., assigning pseudo-label to each example by various strategies, existing methods have empirically validated that SPMLL would significantly reduce the amount of supervision with a tolerable damage in classification performance. However, there is no existing method that can provide a theoretical guarantee for learning from pseudo-label on SPMLL. In this paper, the conditions of the effectiveness of learning from pseudo-label for SPMLL are shown and the learnability of pseudo-label-based methods is proven. Furthermore, based on the theoretical guarantee of pseudo-label for SPMLL, we propose a novel SPMLL method named MIME, i.e., Mutual label enhancement for sIngle-positive Multi-label lEarning and prove that the generated pseudo-label by MIME approximately converges to the fully-supervised case. Experiments on four image datasets and five MLL datasets show the effectiveness of our methods over several existing SPMLL approaches.
Submission Number: 2548