Keywords: Deep Learning Visualization, Thyroid Cancer Recognition, Ultrasonography.
TL;DR: This study presents a new method (Clustered-CAM) to investigate the efficacy of applying ablation on a group of similar feature maps for accurate saliency maps generation.
Abstract: Explaining the CNN classification decision is crucial for the system acceptance in critical applications such as tumour recognition in 2D Ultrasound images. Generating saliency maps that highlight the image regions contributing to the final CNN decision is one of the most common techniques. In this paper, we propose a clustering-based approach to group similar feature maps before assigning importance scores to produce a more accurate and less sensitive visual explanation for CNN models for thyroid nodule classification in US images. Our study with a dataset of 864 ultrasound images shows that the Clustered-CAM achieved a lower average drop and higher percent increase in confidence comparing to the-state-of-the-art techniques. We demonstrate that Clustered-CAM is an effective and promising approach for visualising the CNN model decisions for thyroid nodule recognition.
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Paper Type: novel methodological ideas without extensive validation
Primary Subject Area: Interpretability and Explainable AI
Secondary Subject Area: Application: Radiology
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