Image Background Serves as Good Proxy for Out-of-distribution Data

Published: 16 Jan 2024, Last Modified: 05 Mar 2024ICLR 2024 posterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
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Keywords: Out-of-distribution detection, OOD supervision, robust image classification
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TL;DR: An unified perspective to view the out-of-distribution detection, and an effective method to generate natural OOD supervision.
Abstract: Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection empowers the model trained on the closed image set to identify unknown data in the open world. Though many prior techniques have yielded considerable improvements in this research direction, two crucial obstacles still remain. Firstly, a unified perspective has yet to be presented to view the developed arts with individual designs, which is vital for providing insights into future work. Secondly, we expect sufficient natural OOD supervision to promote the generation of compact boundaries between the in-distribution (ID) and OOD data without collecting explicit OOD samples. To tackle these issues, we propose a general probabilistic framework to interpret many existing methods and an OOD-data-free model, namely $\textbf{S}$elf-supervised $\textbf{S}$ampling for $\textbf{O}$OD $\textbf{D}$etection (SSOD). SSOD efficiently exploits natural OOD signals from the ID data based on the local property of convolution. With these supervisions, it jointly optimizes the OOD detection and conventional ID classification in an end-to-end manner. Extensive experiments reveal that SSOD establishes competitive state-of-the-art performance on many large-scale benchmarks, outperforming the best previous method by a large margin, e.g., reporting $\textbf{-6.28}$% FPR95 and $\textbf{+0.77}$% AUROC on ImageNet, $\textbf{-19.01}$% FPR95 and $\textbf{+3.04}$% AUROC on CIFAR-10, and top-ranked performance on hard OOD datasets, i.e., ImageNet-O and OpenImage-O.
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Primary Area: unsupervised, self-supervised, semi-supervised, and supervised representation learning
Submission Number: 7098