Abstract: Recently multi-lingual pre-trained language models (PLM) such as mBERT and XLM-R have achieved impressive strides in cross-lingual dense retrieval. Despite its successes, they are general-purpose PLM while the multilingual PLM tailored for cross-lingual retrieval is still unexplored. Motivated by an observation that the sentences in parallel documents are approximately in the same order, which is universal across languages, we propose to model this sequential sentence relation to facilitate cross-lingual representation learning. Specifically, we propose a multilingual PLM called masked sentence model (MSM), which consists of a sentence encoder to generate the sentence representations, and a document encoder applied to a sequence of sentence vectors from a document. The document encoder is shared for all languages to model the universal sequential sentence relation across languages. To train the model, we propose a masked sentence prediction task, which masks and predicts the sentence vector via a hierarchical contrastive loss with sampled negatives. Comprehensive experiments on four cross-lingual retrieval tasks show MSM significantly outperforms existing advanced pre-training models, demonstrating the effectiveness and stronger cross-lingual retrieval capabilities of our approach.
Anonymous Url: I certify that there is no URL (e.g., github page) that could be used to find authors’ identity.
No Acknowledgement Section: I certify that there is no acknowledgement section in this submission for double blind review.
Code Of Ethics: I acknowledge that I and all co-authors of this work have read and commit to adhering to the ICLR Code of Ethics
Submission Guidelines: Yes
Please Choose The Closest Area That Your Submission Falls Into: Applications (eg, speech processing, computer vision, NLP)