Leading the Pack: N-player Opponent Shaping

Published: 31 Oct 2023, Last Modified: 03 Dec 2023MASEC@NeurIPS'23 OralEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Keywords: opponent-shaping, general sum games, cooperation, social dilemmas
Abstract: Reinforcement learning solutions have great success in the 2-player general sum setting. In this setting, the paradigm of Opponent Shaping (OS), in which agents account for the learning of their co-players, has led to agents which are able to avoid collectively bad outcomes, whilst also maximizing their reward. These methods have currently been limited to 2-player game. However, the real world involves interactions with many more agents, with interactions on both local and global scales. In this paper, we extend Opponent Shaping (OS) methods to environments involving multiple co-players and multiple shaping agents. We evaluate on 4 different environments, varying the number of players from 3 to 5, and demonstrate that model-based OS methods converge to equilibrium with better global welfare than naive learning. However, we find that when playing with a large number of co-players, OS methods' relative performance reduces, suggesting that in the limit OS methods may not perform well. Finally, we explore scenarios where more than one OS method is present, noticing that within games requiring a majority of cooperating agents, OS methods converge to outcomes with poor global welfare.
Submission Number: 18