- Keywords: Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning, Spatial Hierarchy, Autonomous Driving, Path Planning
- Abstract: Despite advances in hierarchical reinforcement learning, its applications to path planning in autonomous driving on highways are challenging. One reason is that conventional hierarchical reinforcement learning approaches are not amenable to autonomous driving due to its riskiness: the agent must move avoiding multiple obstacles such as other agents that are highly unpredictable, thus safe regions are small, scattered, and changeable over time. To overcome this challenge, we propose a spatially hierarchical reinforcement learning method for state space and policy space. The high-level policy selects not only behavioral sub-policy but also regions to pay mind to in state space and for outline in policy space. Subsequently, the low-level policy elaborates the short-term goal position of the agent within the outline of the region selected by the high-level command. The network structure and optimization suggested in our method are as concise as those of single-level methods. Experiments on the environment with various shapes of roads showed that our method finds the nearly optimal policies from early episodes, outperforming a baseline hierarchical reinforcement learning method, especially in narrow and complex roads. The resulting trajectories on the roads were similar to those of human strategies on the behavioral planning level.
- One-sentence Summary: We propose a spatially and seamlessly hierarchical reinforcement learning method for state space and policy space that is suitable for path planning in autonomous driving and gives good performance.