Mixture-of-Experts Meets Instruction Tuning: A Winning Combination for Large Language Models

Published: 16 Jan 2024, Last Modified: 13 Mar 2024ICLR 2024 posterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Code Of Ethics: I acknowledge that I and all co-authors of this work have read and commit to adhering to the ICLR Code of Ethics.
Keywords: MoE, Instruction Tuning
Submission Guidelines: I certify that this submission complies with the submission instructions as described on https://iclr.cc/Conferences/2024/AuthorGuide.
TL;DR: Mixture-of-Expert models benefit more from instruction tuning than dense models
Abstract: Sparse Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) is a neural architecture design that adds learnable parameters to Large Language Models (LLMs) without increasing computational complexity (FLOPs). Instruction tuning is a technique for training LLMs to follow instructions. We advocate combining these two approaches, as we find that MoE models benefit more from instruction tuning than dense models. In particular, we conduct empirical studies across three experimental setups: (i) Direct finetuning on individual downstream tasks devoid of instruction tuning; (ii) Instruction tuning followed by in-context few-shot or zero-shot generalization on downstream tasks; and (iii) Instruction tuning supplemented by further finetuning on individual downstream tasks. In the first scenario, MoE models overall underperform dense models of identical computational capacity. This narrative, however, dramatically changes with the introduction of instruction tuning (in the second and third scenarios), used independently or in conjunction with task-specific finetuning. Our most powerful model, FLAN-MoE-32B, surpasses the performance of Flan-PaLM-62B on four benchmark tasks, while using only a third of the FLOPs. The advancements embodied by FLAN-MoE inspire a reevaluation of the design principles of large-scale, high-performance language models in the framework of task-agnostic learning.
Anonymous Url: I certify that there is no URL (e.g., github page) that could be used to find authors' identity.
Supplementary Material: pdf
No Acknowledgement Section: I certify that there is no acknowledgement section in this submission for double blind review.
Primary Area: representation learning for computer vision, audio, language, and other modalities
Submission Number: 3245