Keywords: Information bottleneck, Perturbation theory, Strong data processing inequality
Abstract: Extracting relevant information from data is crucial for all forms of learning. The information bottleneck (IB) method formalizes this, offering a mathematically precise and conceptually appealing framework for understanding learning phenomena. However the nonlinearity of the IB problem makes it computationally expensive and analytically intractable in general. Here we derive a perturbation theory for the IB method and report the first complete characterization of the learning onset, the limit of maximum relevant information per bit extracted from data. We test our results on synthetic probability distributions, finding good agreement with the exact numerical solution near the onset of learning. We explore the difference and subtleties in our derivation and previous attempts at deriving a perturbation theory for the learning onset and attribute the discrepancy to a flawed assumption. Our work also provides a fresh perspective on the intimate relationship between the IB method and the strong data processing inequality.
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