Abstract: In this paper, we propose a predictive regression model for longitudinal images with missing data based on large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) and deep neural networks. Instead of directly predicting image scans, our model predicts a vector momentum sequence associated with a baseline image. This momentum sequence parameterizes the original image sequence in the LDDMM framework and lies in the tangent space of the baseline image, which is Euclidean. A recurrent network with long term-short memory (LSTM) units encodes the time-varying changes in the vector-momentum sequence, and a convolutional neural network (CNN) encodes the baseline image of the vector momenta. Features extracted by the LSTM and CNN are fed into a decoder network to reconstruct the vector momentum sequence, which is used for the image sequence prediction by deforming the baseline image with LDDMM shooting. To handle the missing images at some time points, we adopt a binary mask to ignore their reconstructions in the loss calculation. We evaluate our model on synthetically generated images and the brain MRIs from the OASIS dataset. Experimental results demonstrate the promising predictions of the spatiotemporal changes in both datasets, irrespective of large or subtle changes in longitudinal image sequences.
Keywords: Image Regression, LDDMM, LSTM, Longitudinal Studies, Missing Data
Author Affiliation: University of Georgia