Keywords: model merging, weight merging
TL;DR: We study the problem of merging individual models built on different training data sets and propose a novel merging algorithm.
Abstract: Fine-tuning pre-trained language models has become the prevalent paradigm for building downstream NLP models. Oftentimes fine-tuned models are readily available but their training data is not, due to data privacy or intellectual property concerns. This creates a barrier to fusing knowledge across individual models to yield a better single model. In this paper, we study the problem of merging individual models built on different training data sets to obtain a single model that performs well both across all data set domains and can generalize on out-of-domain data. We propose a data-less knowledge fusion method that merges models in their parameter space, guided by weights that minimize prediction differences between the merged model and the individual models. Over a battery of evaluation settings, we show that the proposed method significantly outperforms baselines such as Fisher-weighted averaging or model ensembling. Further, we find that our method is a promising alternative to multi-task learning that can preserve or sometimes improve over the individual models without access to the training data. Finally, model merging is more efficient than training a multi-task model, thus making it applicable to a wider set of scenarios.
Anonymous Url: I certify that there is no URL (e.g., github page) that could be used to find authors’ identity.
No Acknowledgement Section: I certify that there is no acknowledgement section in this submission for double blind review.
Code Of Ethics: I acknowledge that I and all co-authors of this work have read and commit to adhering to the ICLR Code of Ethics
Submission Guidelines: Yes
Please Choose The Closest Area That Your Submission Falls Into: Applications (eg, speech processing, computer vision, NLP)
Community Implementations: [![CatalyzeX](/images/catalyzex_icon.svg) 1 code implementation](https://www.catalyzex.com/paper/arxiv:2212.09849/code)