Keywords: embeddings, non-Euclidean geometry, manifolds, geometry of data
TL;DR: Product manifold embedding spaces with heterogenous curvature yield improved representations compared to traditional embedding spaces for a variety of structures.
Abstract: The quality of the representations achieved by embeddings is determined by how well the geometry of the embedding space matches the structure of the data. Euclidean space has been the workhorse for embeddings; recently hyperbolic and spherical spaces have gained popularity due to their ability to better embed new types of structured data---such as hierarchical data---but most data is not structured so uniformly. We address this problem by proposing learning embeddings in a product manifold combining multiple copies of these model spaces (spherical, hyperbolic, Euclidean), providing a space of heterogeneous curvature suitable for a wide variety of structures. We introduce a heuristic to estimate the sectional curvature of graph data and directly determine an appropriate signature---the number of component spaces and their dimensions---of the product manifold. Empirically, we jointly learn the curvature and the embedding in the product space via Riemannian optimization. We discuss how to define and compute intrinsic quantities such as means---a challenging notion for product manifolds---and provably learnable optimization functions. On a range of datasets and reconstruction tasks, our product space embeddings outperform single Euclidean or hyperbolic spaces used in previous works, reducing distortion by 32.55% on a Facebook social network dataset. We learn word embeddings and find that a product of hyperbolic spaces in 50 dimensions consistently improves on baseline Euclidean and hyperbolic embeddings, by 2.6 points in Spearman rank correlation on similarity tasks and 3.4 points on analogy accuracy.