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- Abstract: In fluorescence microscopy live-cell imaging, there is a critical trade-off between the signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution on one side, and the integrity of the biological sample on the other side. To obtain clean high-resolution images, one can either use microscopy techniques such as structured-illumination microscopy (SIM), or apply denoising and super-resolution (SR) algorithms. However, the former option requires multiple shots that can damage the samples, and although efficient deep learning based algorithms exist for the latter option, no benchmark exists to evaluate these algorithms on the joint denoising and SR (JDSR) tasks. To study joint denoising and SR on microscopy data, we propose such a novel JDSR dataset, Widefield2SIM (W2S), acquired using a conventional fluorescence widefield and SIM imaging. W2S includes 144,000 real fluorescence microscopy images, resulting in a total of 360 sets of images. A set is comprised of noisy LR widefield images with different noise levels, a noise-free LR image, and a corresponding high-quality HR SIM image. W2S allows us to benchmark the combinations of 6 denoising methods and 6 SR methods. We show that state-of-the-art SR networks perform very poorly on noisy inputs. Our evaluation also reveals that applying the best denoiser in terms of reconstruction error followed by the best SR method does not necessarily yield the best final result. Both quantitative and qualitative results show that SR networks are sensitive to noise and the sequential application of denoising and SR algorithms is sub-optimal. Lastly, we demonstrate that SR networks retrained end-to-end for JDSR outperform any combination of state-of-the-art deep denoising and SR networks.
- Supplementary Material: pdf
- Keywords: Image Restoration Dataset, Denoising, Super-resolution, Microscopy Imaging, Joint Optimization