Learning Latent Representations in Neural Networks for Clustering through Pseudo Supervision and Graph-based Activity Regularization
Keywords: representation learning, unsupervised clustering, pseudo supervision, graph-based activity regularization, auto-clustering output layer
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised clustering approach exploiting the hidden information that is indirectly introduced through a pseudo classification objective. Specifically, we randomly assign a pseudo parent-class label to each observation which is then modified by applying the domain specific transformation associated with the assigned label. Generated pseudo observation-label pairs are subsequently used to train a neural network with Auto-clustering Output Layer (ACOL) that introduces multiple softmax nodes for each pseudo parent-class. Due to the unsupervised objective based on Graph-based Activity Regularization (GAR) terms, softmax duplicates of each parent-class are specialized as the hidden information captured through the help of domain specific transformations is propagated during training. Ultimately we obtain a k-means friendly latent representation. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the chosen transformation type impacts performance and helps propagate the latent information that is useful in revealing unknown clusters. Our results show state-of-the-art performance for unsupervised clustering tasks on MNIST, SVHN and USPS datasets, with the highest accuracies reported to date in the literature.
Data: [MNIST](https://paperswithcode.com/dataset/mnist), [SVHN](https://paperswithcode.com/dataset/svhn)