Energy-Based Concept Bottleneck Models: Unifying Prediction, Concept Intervention, and Probabilistic Interpretations

Published: 16 Jan 2024, Last Modified: 21 Apr 2024ICLR 2024 posterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Code Of Ethics: I acknowledge that I and all co-authors of this work have read and commit to adhering to the ICLR Code of Ethics.
Keywords: Interpretability, Concepts, Energy-Based Model, Probabilistic Methods
Submission Guidelines: I certify that this submission complies with the submission instructions as described on
TL;DR: We introduce Energy-Based Concept Bottleneck Models as a unified framework for concept-based prediction, concept correction, and fine-grained interpretations based on conditional probabilities.
Abstract: Existing methods, such as concept bottleneck models (CBMs), have been successful in providing concept-based interpretations for black-box deep learning models. They typically work by predicting concepts given the input and then predicting the final class label given the predicted concepts. However, (1) they often fail to capture the high-order, nonlinear interaction between concepts, e.g., correcting a predicted concept (e.g., “yellow breast”) does not help correct highly correlated concepts (e.g., “yellow belly”), leading to suboptimal final accuracy; (2) they cannot naturally quantify the complex conditional dependencies between different concepts and class labels (e.g., for an image with the class label “Kentucky Warbler” and a concept “black bill”, what is the probability that the model correctly predicts another concept “black crown”), therefore failing to provide deeper insight into how a black-box model works. In response to these limitations, we propose Energy-based Concept Bottleneck Models (ECBMs). Our ECBMs use a set of neural networks to define the joint energy of candidate (input, concept, class) tuples. With such a unified interface, prediction, concept correction, and conditional dependency quantification are then represented as conditional probabilities, which are generated by composing different energy functions. Our ECBMs address both limitations of existing CBMs, providing higher accuracy and richer concept interpretations. Empirical results show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art on real-world datasets.
Anonymous Url: I certify that there is no URL (e.g., github page) that could be used to find authors' identity.
No Acknowledgement Section: I certify that there is no acknowledgement section in this submission for double blind review.
Primary Area: visualization or interpretation of learned representations
Submission Number: 340