Score-based Causal Representation Learning from Interventions: Nonparametric Identifiability

Published: 27 Oct 2023, Last Modified: 05 Dec 2023CRL@NeurIPS 2023 OralEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Keywords: Causal representation learning, interventions, score-based methods
Abstract: This paper focuses on causal representation learning (CRL) under a general nonparametric causal latent model and a general transformation model that maps the latent data to the observational data. It establishes **identifiability** and **achievability** results using two (stochastic) hard **uncoupled** interventions per node in the latent causal graph. Notably, one does not know which pair of intervention environments have the same node intervened (hence, uncoupled environments). For identifiability, the paper establishes that perfect recovery of the latent causal model and variables is guaranteed under uncoupled interventions. For achievability, an algorithm is designed that uses observational and interventional data and recovers the latent causal model and variables with provable guarantees for the algorithm. This algorithm leverages score variations across different environments to estimate the inverse of the transformer and, subsequently, the latent variables. The analysis, additionally, recovers the existing identifiability result for two hard **coupled** interventions, that is when metadata about the pair of environments that have the same node intervened is known. It is noteworthy that the existing results on non-parametric identifiability require assumptions on interventions and additional faithfulness assumptions. This paper shows that when observational data is available, additional faithfulness assumptions are unnecessary.
Submission Number: 16