Published: 16 Jan 2024, Last Modified: 21 Apr 2024ICLR 2024 posterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
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Keywords: AI Safety, Trustworthy Machine Learning, Machine Learning Robustness, Adversarial Attacks
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Abstract: We study the unique, less-well understood problem of generating sparse adversarial samples simply by observing the score-based replies to model queries. Sparse attacks aim to discover a minimum number—the $l_0$ bounded—perturbations to model inputs to craft adversarial examples and misguide model decisions. But, in contrast to query-based dense attack counterparts against black-box models, constructing sparse adversarial perturbations, even when models serve confidence score information to queries in a score-based setting, is non-trivial. Because, such an attack leads to: i) an NP-hard problem; and ii) a non-differentiable search space. We develop the BRUSLEATTACK—a new, faster (more query-efficient) algorithm formulation for the problem. We conduct extensive attack evaluations including an attack demonstration against a Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS) offering exemplified by __Google Cloud Vision__ and robustness testing of adversarial training regimes and a recent defense against black-box attacks. The proposed attack scales to achieve state-of-the-art attack success rates and query efficiency on standard computer vision tasks such as ImageNet across different model architectures. Our artifacts and DIY attack samples are available on GitHub. Importantly, our work facilitates faster evaluation of model vulnerabilities and raises our vigilance on the safety, security and reliability of deployed systems.
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Primary Area: societal considerations including fairness, safety, privacy
Submission Number: 5046