- TL;DR: Scalable and accurate deep multi label learning with millions of labels.
- Abstract: The objective in deep extreme multi-label learning is to jointly learn feature representations and classifiers to automatically tag data points with the most relevant subset of labels from an extremely large label set. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art deep extreme classifiers are either not scalable or inaccurate for short text documents. This paper develops the DeepXML algorithm which addresses both limitations by introducing a novel architecture that splits training of head and tail labels. DeepXML increases accuracy by (a) learning word embeddings on head labels and transferring them through a novel residual connection to data impoverished tail labels; (b) increasing the amount of negative training data available by extending state-of-the-art negative sub-sampling techniques; and (c) re-ranking the set of predicted labels to eliminate the hardest negatives for the original classifier. All of these contributions are implemented efficiently by extending the highly scalable Slice algorithm for pretrained embeddings to learn the proposed DeepXML architecture. As a result, DeepXML could efficiently scale to problems involving millions of labels that were beyond the pale of state-of-the-art deep extreme classifiers as it could be more than 10x faster at training than XML-CNN and AttentionXML. At the same time, DeepXML was also empirically determined to be up to 19% more accurate than leading techniques for matching search engine queries to advertiser bid phrases.
- Keywords: extreme multi label learning, extreme classification, deep extreme multi label learning, deep extreme classification, large output space
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