Keywords: knowledge graph, complex query answering, graph neural network, representation learning
Abstract: Complex Query Answering (CQA) over Knowledge Graphs (KGs) has attracted a lot of attention to potentially support many applications. Given that KGs are usually incomplete, neural models are proposed to answer the logical queries by parameterizing set operators with complex neural networks. However, such methods usually train neural set operators with a large number of entity and relation embeddings from the zero, where whether and how the embeddings or the neural set operators contribute to the performance remains not clear. In this paper, we propose a simple framework for complex query answering that decomposes the KG embeddings from neural set operators. We propose to represent the complex queries into the query graph. On top of the query graph, we propose the Logical Message Passing Neural Network (LMPNN) that connects the local one-hop inferences on atomic formulas to the global logical reasoning for complex query answering. We leverage existing effective KG embeddings to conduct one-hop inferences on atomic formulas, the results of which are regarded as the messages passed in LMPNN. The reasoning process over the overall logical formulas is turned into the forward pass of LMPNN that incrementally aggregates local information to finally predict the answers' embeddings. The complex logical inference across different types of queries will then be learned from training examples based on the LMPNN architecture. Theoretically, our query-graph represenation is more general than the prevailing operator-tree formulation, so our approach applies to a broader range of complex KG queries. Empirically, our approach yields the new state-of-the-art neural CQA model. Our research bridges the gap between complex KG query answering tasks and the long-standing achievements of knowledge graph representation learning. Our implementation can be found at https://github.com/HKUST-KnowComp/LMPNN.
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