PixelNN: Example-based Image Synthesis


Nov 03, 2017 (modified: Nov 03, 2017) ICLR 2018 Conference Blind Submission readers: everyone Show Bibtex
  • Abstract: We present a simple nearest-neighbor (NN) approach that synthesizes high-frequency photorealistic images from an ``incomplete'' signal such as a low-resolution image, a surface normal map, or edges. Current state-of-the-art deep generative models designed for such conditional image synthesis lack two important things: (1) they are unable to generate a large set of diverse outputs, due to the mode collapse problem. (2) they are not interpretable, making it difficult to control the synthesized output. We demonstrate that NN approaches potentially address such limitations, but suffer in accuracy on small datasets. We design a simple pipeline that combines the best of both worlds: the first stage uses a convolutional neural network (CNN) to map the input to a (overly-smoothed) image, and the second stage uses a pixel-wise nearest neighbor method to map the smoothed output to multiple high-quality, high-frequency outputs in a controllable manner. Importantly, pixel-wise matching allows our method to compose novel high-frequency content by cutting-and-pasting pixels from different training exemplars. We demonstrate our approach for various input modalities, and for various domains ranging from human faces, pets, shoes, and handbags.
  • TL;DR: Pixel-wise nearest neighbors used for generating multiple images from incomplete priors such as a low-res images, surface normals, edges etc.
  • Keywords: conditional image synthesis, nearest neighbors