Keywords: visual correspondence, nearest neighbors, optimal transport, explainable AI, xai, human AI team
TL;DR: We propose and evaluate two novel, explainable image classifiers that explain before making decisions by computing explicit visual correspondence with examplars
Abstract: Explaining artificial intelligence (AI) predictions is increasingly important and even imperative in many high-stake applications where humans are the ultimate decision-makers. In this work, we propose two novel architectures of explainable image classifiers that first explain, and then predict (as opposed to post-hoc explanation methods). Our models first rank the training-set images by their distance with the query in an image-level deep feature space. And then, we re-rank the top-50 shortlisted candidates using patch-wise similarity of 5 highest-similarity pairs of patches between the query and every candidate. On ImageNet, our models improve (by 1-4 points) the out-of-distribution accuracy on several datasets including Adversarial Patch and ImageNet-R while performing marginally worse (by 1-2 points) on ImageNet to the baselines (ResNet-50 pre-trained ImageNet). A consistent trend is observed on CUB. Via a large-scale, human study (~60 users per method per dataset) on ImageNet and CUB, we find our proposed correspondence-based explanations led to human-alone image classification accuracy and human-AI team accuracy that are consistently better than those of k-NN. Our correspondence-based explanations help users better correctly reject AI's wrong decisions than all other tested methods. Interestingly, for the first time, we show that it is possible to achieve complementary human-AI team accuracy (i.e. that is higher than either AI-alone or human-alone), in both image classification tasks.
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