On the Inherent Privacy Properties of Discrete Denoising Diffusion Models

Published: 29 May 2024, Last Modified: 29 May 2024Accepted by TMLREveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Abstract: Privacy concerns have led to a surge in the creation of synthetic datasets, with diffusion models emerging as a promising avenue. Although prior studies have performed empirical evaluations on these models, there has been a gap in providing a mathematical characterization of their privacy-preserving capabilities. To address this, we present the pioneering theoretical exploration of the privacy preservation inherent in \emph{discrete diffusion models} (DDMs) for discrete dataset generation. Focusing on per-instance differential privacy (pDP), our framework elucidates the potential privacy leakage for each data point in a given training dataset, offering insights into how the privacy loss of each point correlates with the dataset's distribution. Our bounds also show that training with $s$-sized data points leads to a surge in privacy leakage from $(\epsilon, \mathcal{O}(\frac{1}{s^2\epsilon}))$-pDP to $(\epsilon, \mathcal{O}(\frac{1}{s\epsilon}))$-pDP of the DDM during the transition from the pure noise to the synthetic clean data phase, and a faster decay in diffusion coefficients amplifies the privacy guarantee. Finally, we empirically verify our theoretical findings on both synthetic and real-world datasets.
Submission Length: Regular submission (no more than 12 pages of main content)
Supplementary Material: zip
Assigned Action Editor: ~Joonas_Jälkö1
Submission Number: 2050