Leveraging Proxy of Training Data for Test-Time Adaptation
Abstract: We consider test-time adaptation (TTA), the task of adapting a trained model to an arbitrary test domain using unlabeled input data on-the-fly during testing. A common practice of TTA is to disregard data used in training due to large memory demand and privacy leakage. However, the training data are the only source of supervision. This motivates us to investigate a proper way of using them while minimizing the side effects. To this end, we propose two lightweight yet informative proxies of the training data and a TTA method fully exploiting them. One of the proxies is composed of a small number of images synthesized (hence, less privacy-sensitive) by data condensation which minimizes their domain-specificity to capture a general underlying structure over a wide spectrum of domains. Then, in TTA, they are translated into labeled test data by stylizing them to match styles of unlabeled test samples. This enables virtually supervised test-time training. The other proxy is inter-class relations of training data, which are transferred to target model during TTA. On four public benchmarks, our method outperforms the state-of-the-art ones at remarkably less computation and memory.
Submission Number: 5623