Abstract: Most existing methods for multi-source unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) rely on a common feature encoder to extract domain-invariant features. However, learning such an encoder involves updating the parameters of the entire network, which makes the optimization computationally expensive, particularly when coupled with min-max objectives. Inspired by recent advances in prompt learning that adapts high-capacity deep models for downstream tasks in a computationally economic way, we introduce Multi-Prompt Alignment (MPA), a simple yet efficient two-stage framework for multi-source UDA. Given a source and target domain pair, MPA first trains an individual prompt to minimize the domain gap through a contrastive loss, while tuning only a small set of parameters. Then, MPA derives a low-dimensional latent space through an auto-encoding process that maximizes the agreement of multiple learned prompts. The resulting embedding further facilitates generalization to unseen domains. Extensive experiments show that our method achieves state-of-the-art results on popular benchmark datasets while requiring substantially fewer tunable parameters. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to apply prompt learning to the multi-source UDA problem and our method achieves the highest reported average accuracy of 54.1% on DomainNet, the most challenging UDA dataset to date, with only 15.9M parameters trained. More importantly, we demonstrate that the learned embedding space can be easily adapted to novel unseen domains.
Anonymous Url: I certify that there is no URL (e.g., github page) that could be used to find authors’ identity.
No Acknowledgement Section: I certify that there is no acknowledgement section in this submission for double blind review.
Code Of Ethics: I acknowledge that I and all co-authors of this work have read and commit to adhering to the ICLR Code of Ethics
Submission Guidelines: Yes
Please Choose The Closest Area That Your Submission Falls Into: Applications (eg, speech processing, computer vision, NLP)