Inverting cognitive models with machine learning to infer preferences from fixations
Keywords: Fixation, Cognitive Models, Neural Networks, Inverse Reinforcement Learning
TL;DR: Cognitive models and machine learning can be combined to infer the value that people assign to food items from their fixations.
Abstract: Inferring an individual’s preferences from their observable behavior is a key step in the development of assistive decision-making technology. Although machine learning models such as neural networks could in principle be deployed toward this inference, a large amount of data is required to train such models. Here, we present an approach in which a cognitive model generates simulated data to augment limited human data. Using these data, we train a neural network to invert the model, making it possible to infer preferences from behavior. We show how this approach can be used to infer the value that people assign to food items from their eye movements when choosing between those items. We demonstrate first that neural networks can infer the latent preferences used by the model to generate simulated fixations, and second that simulated data can be beneficial in pretraining a network for predicting human-reported preferences from real fixations. Compared to inferring preferences from choice alone, this approach confers a slight improvement in predicting preferences and also allows prediction to take place prior to the choice being made. Overall, our results suggest that using a combination of neural networks and model-simulated training data is a promising approach for developing technology that infers human preferences.
Submission Type: Extended Abstract
Supplementary Material: zip
Submission Number: 13