Keywords: Laplace, linearised Laplace, Bayesian neural network, Bayesian linear regression, uncertainty estimation, Bayesian deep learning, EM, large scale regression, sample then optimise, evidence framework
TL;DR: We scale the linearised Laplace method for uncertainty estimation to large neural networks and datasets using an efficient method for posterior sampling
Abstract: Large-scale linear models are ubiquitous throughout machine learning, with contemporary application as surrogate models for neural network uncertainty quantification; that is, the linearised Laplace method. Alas, the computational cost associated with Bayesian linear models constrains this method's application to small networks, small output spaces and small datasets. We address this limitation by introducing a scalable sample-based Bayesian inference method for conjugate Gaussian multi-output linear models, together with a matching method for hyperparameter (regularisation) selection. Furthermore, we use a classic feature normalisation method (the g-prior) to resolve a previously highlighted pathology of the linearised Laplace method. Together, these contributions allow us to perform linearised neural network inference with ResNet-18 on CIFAR100 (11M parameters, 100 output dimensions × 50k datapoints) and with a U-Net on a high-resolution tomographic reconstruction task (2M parameters, 251k output dimensions).
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