Keywords: meta-learning, few-shot learning, Gaussian processes, deep kernel learning, bilevel optimization, chemistry, molecules, drug discovery
TL;DR: This paper proposes a meta-learning approach for fitting deep kernel GPs via implicit differentiation, which outperforms previous SOTA methods on a variety of real-world chemical tasks.
Abstract: We propose Adaptive Deep Kernel Fitting with Implicit Function Theorem (ADKF-IFT), a novel framework for learning deep kernel Gaussian processes (GPs) by interpolating between meta-learning and conventional deep kernel learning. Our approach employs a bilevel optimization objective where we meta-learn generally useful feature representations across tasks, in the sense that task-specific GP models estimated on top of such features achieve the lowest possible predictive loss on average. We solve the resulting nested optimization problem using the implicit function theorem (IFT). We show that our ADKF-IFT framework contains previously proposed Deep Kernel Learning (DKL) and Deep Kernel Transfer (DKT) as special cases. Although ADKF-IFT is a completely general method, we argue that it is especially well-suited for drug discovery problems and demonstrate that it significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods on a variety of real-world few-shot molecular property prediction tasks and out-of-domain molecular property prediction and optimization tasks.