Keywords: Domain adaptation, Auxiliary data, Prototypical learning
TL;DR: We propose a new Test-time Adaptation setting and a learning framework that outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods.
Abstract: Test-time adaptation (TTA) aims to achieve high accuracy on out-of-distribution (OOD) target data with only model parameters trained on the source domain and the target data. Standard TTA assumes that the test data is under a single distribution, or the distribution gradually changes with test data streaming in. However, in many scenarios, this assumption does not always hold. For instance, when inference is performed on the cloud, the test data can come from totally different users. In this paper, we try to tackle Domain-agnostic Test-time Adaptation (DaTTA), a new problem setting where the test data distribution is unknown and varies abruptly. To address DaTTA, we propose a framework to perform prototypical training with auxiliary data (PAD). Specifically, we fine-tune the model with augmented test images by consistency loss and further regulate the training process by auxiliary data. We curate a dataset for DaTTA, and the proposed PAD outperforms previous best methods by large margins on both DaTTA and standard TTA.