- Keywords: EBM, energy-based model, anomaly detection, anomaly localization, novelty detection, outlier detection, out-of-distribution detection
- TL;DR: We are proposing a unified energy-based semi-supervised anomaly detection and localization method and testing it on MVTec AD anomaly detection dataset.
- Abstract: This brief sketches initial progress towards a unified energy-based solution for the semi-supervised visual anomaly detection and localization problem. In this setup, we have access to only anomaly-free training data and want to detect and identify anomalies of an arbitrary nature on test data. We employ the density estimates from the energy-based model (EBM) as normalcy scores that can be used to discriminate normal images from anomalous ones. Further, we back-propagate the gradients of the energy score with respect to the image in order to generate a gradient map that provides pixel-level spatial localization of the anomalies in the image. In addition to the spatial localization, we show that simple processing of the gradient map can also provide alternative normalcy scores that either match or surpass the detection performance obtained with the energy value. To quantitatively validate the performance of the proposed method, we conduct experiments on the MVTec industrial dataset. Though still preliminary, our results are very promising and reveal the potential of EBMs for simultaneously detecting and localizing unforeseen anomalies in images.