A Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach for Finding Non-Exploitable Strategies in Two-Player Atari GamesDownload PDF

22 Sept 2022, 12:36 (modified: 26 Oct 2022, 14:09)ICLR 2023 Conference Withdrawn SubmissionReaders: Everyone
Abstract: This paper proposes novel, end-to-end deep reinforcement learning algorithms for learning two-player zero-sum Markov games. Different from prior efforts on training agents to beat a fixed set of opponents, our objective is to find the Nash equilibrium policies that are free from exploitation by even the adversarial opponents. We propose (1) Nash DQN algorithm, which integrates DQN with a Nash finding subroutine for the joint value functions; and (2) Nash DQN Exploiter algorithm, which additionally adopts an exploiter for guiding agent's exploration. Our algorithms are the practical variants of theoretical algorithms which are guaranteed to converge to Nash equilibria in the basic tabular setting. Experimental evaluation on both tabular examples and two-player Atari games demonstrates the robustness of the proposed algorithms against adversarial opponents, as well as their advantageous performance over existing methods.
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