Keywords: Patient covariate shift, Domain Generalization, Healthcare, EEG, EHR
TL;DR: New "many-domain generalization" setting and new approach ManyDG for the setting in healthcare applications
Abstract: The vast amount of health data has been continuously collected for each patient, providing opportunities to support diverse healthcare predictive tasks such as seizure detection and hospitalization prediction. Existing models are mostly trained on other patients’ data and evaluated on new patients. Many of them might suffer from poor generalizability. One key reason can be overfitting due to the unique information related to patient identities and their data collection environments, referred to as patient covariates in the paper. These patient covariates usually do not contribute to predicting the targets but are often difficult to remove. As a result, they can bias the model training process and impede generalization. In healthcare applications, most existing domain generalization methods assume a small number of domains. In this paper, considering the diversity of patient covariates, we propose a new setting by treating each patient as a separate domain (leading to many domains). We develop a new domain generalization method ManyDG, that can scale to such many-domain problems. Our method identifies the patient do- main covariates by mutual reconstruction, and removes them via an orthogonal projection step. Extensive experiments show that ManyDG can boost the generalization performance on multiple real-world healthcare tasks (e.g., 3.7% Jaccard improvements on MIMIC drug recommendation) and support realistic but challenging settings such as insufficient data and continuous learning. The code is available at https://github.com/ycq091044/ManyDG.
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