Keywords: Bayesian inference, conditional generative adversarial network, deep generative model, inverse problem, positron emission tomography, uncertainty quantification
TL;DR: The paper proposes a conditional GAN-based approach for uncertainty quantification in PET image reconstruction using sampling from the learned posterior distribution.
Abstract: Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important functional medical imaging technique often used in the evaluation of certain brain disorders, whose reconstruction problem is ill-posed. The vast majority of reconstruction methods in PET imaging, both iterative and deep learning, return a single estimate without quantifying the associated uncertainty. Due to ill-posedness and noise, a single solution can be misleading or inaccurate. Thus, providing a measure of uncertainty in PET image reconstruction can help medical practitioners in making critical decisions. This paper proposes a deep learning-based method for uncertainty quantification in PET image reconstruction via posterior sampling. The method is based on training a conditional generative adversarial network whose generator approximates sampling from the posterior in Bayesian inversion. The generator is conditioned on reconstruction from a low-dose PET scan obtained by a conventional reconstruction method and a high-quality magnetic resonance image and learned to estimate a corresponding standard-dose PET scan reconstruction. We show that the proposed model generates high-quality posterior samples and yields physically-meaningful uncertainty estimates.