Keywords: Federated Learning, Heterogeneity
TL;DR: DepthFL is a new federated learning framework based on depth scaling to tackle system heterogeneity.
Abstract: Federated learning is for training a global model without collecting private local data from clients. As they repeatedly need to upload locally-updated weights or gradients instead, clients require both computation and communication resources enough to participate in learning, but in reality their resources are heterogeneous. To enable resource-constrained clients to train smaller local models, width scaling techniques have been used, which reduces the channels of a global model. Unfortunately, width scaling suffers from heterogeneity of local models when averaging them, leading to a lower accuracy than when simply excluding resource-constrained clients from training. This paper proposes a new approach based on depth scaling called DepthFL. DepthFL defines local models of different depths by pruning the deepest layers off the global model, and allocates them to clients depending on their available resources. Since many clients do not have enough resources to train deep local models, this would make deep layers partially-trained with insufficient data, unlike shallow layers that are fully trained. DepthFL alleviates this problem by mutual self-distillation of knowledge among the classifiers of various depths within a local model. Our experiments show that depth-scaled local models build a global model better than width-scaled ones, and that self-distillation is highly effective in training data-insufficient deep layers.
Anonymous Url: I certify that there is no URL (e.g., github page) that could be used to find authors’ identity.
No Acknowledgement Section: I certify that there is no acknowledgement section in this submission for double blind review.
Code Of Ethics: I acknowledge that I and all co-authors of this work have read and commit to adhering to the ICLR Code of Ethics
Submission Guidelines: Yes
Please Choose The Closest Area That Your Submission Falls Into: Deep Learning and representational learning