Keywords: pseudo-Riemannian geometry, spacetimes, Lorentz geometry, Lorentzian causality theory, Lorentzian pre-length spaces, directed graphs
TL;DR: Representation of directed graphs by exploiting the causal structure of spacetimes via Lorentzian pre-length spaces
Abstract: Much of the data we encounter in the real world can be represented as directed graphs. In this work, we introduce a general family of representations for directed graphs through connected time-oriented Lorentz manifolds, called "spacetimes" in general relativity. Spacetimes intrinsically contain a causal structure that indicates whether or not there exists a causal or even chronological order between points of the manifold, called events. This chronological order allows us to naturally represent directed edges via imposing the correct ordering when the nodes are embedded as events in the spacetime. Previous work in machine learning only considers embeddings lying on the simplest Lorentz manifold or does not exploit the connection between Lorentzian pre-length spaces and directed graphs. We introduce a well-defined approach to map data onto a general family of spacetimes. We empirically evaluate our framework in the tasks of hierarchy extraction of undirected graphs, directed link prediction and representation of directed graphs.
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