Abstract: Recent advances in machine learning have brought the field closer to computational creativity research. From a creativity research point of view, this offers the potential to study creativity in relationship with knowledge acquisition. From a machine learning perspective, however, several aspects of creativity need to be better defined to allow the machine learning community to develop and test hypotheses in a systematic way. We propose an actionable definition of creativity as the generation of out-of-distribution novelty. We assess several metrics designed for evaluating the quality of generative models on this new task. We also propose a new experimental setup. Inspired by the usual held-out validation, we hold out entire classes for evaluating the generative potential of models. The goal of the novelty generator is then to use training classes to build a model that can generate objects from future (hold-out) classes, unknown at training time - and thus, are novel with respect to the knowledge the model incorporates. Through extensive experiments on various types of generative models, we are able to find architectures and hyperparameter combinations which lead to out-of-distribution novelty.
Keywords: Deep learning, Unsupervised Learning