- Abstract: Performance of Deep Neural Network (DNN) heavily depends on the characteristics of hidden layer representations. Unlike the codewords of channel coding, however, the representations of learning cannot be directly designed or controlled. Therefore, we develop a family of penalty regularizers where each one aims to affect one of representation's statistical properties such as sparsity, variance, or covariance. The regularizers are extended to perform class-wise regularization, and the extension is found to provide an outstanding shaping capability. A variety of statistical properties are investigated for 10 different regularization strategies including dropout and batch normalization, and several interesting findings are reported. Using the family of regularizers, performance improvements are confirmed for MNIST, CIFAR-100, and CIFAR-10 classification problems. But more importantly, our results suggest that understanding how to manipulate statistical properties of representations can be an important step toward understanding DNN and that the role and effect of DNN regularizers need to be reconsidered.
- Keywords: DNN representation, penalty regularization, channel coding