- Keywords: Normalizing Flows, Injective Flows, Manifold Learning, Density Estimation
- TL;DR: We perform maximum-likelihood based density estimation for injective flows.
- Abstract: Normalizing flows allow for tractable maximum likelihood estimation of their parameters but are incapable of modelling low-dimensional manifold structure in observed data. Flows which injectively map from low- to high-dimensional space provide promise for fixing this issue, but the resulting likelihood-based objective becomes more challenging to evaluate. Current approaches avoid computing the entire objective -- which may induce pathological behaviour -- or assume the manifold structure is known beforehand and thus are not widely applicable. Instead, we propose two methods relying on tricks from automatic differentiation and numerical linear algebra to either evaluate or approximate the full likelihood objective, performing end-to-end manifold learning and density estimation. We study the trade-offs between our methods, demonstrate improved results over previous injective flows, and show promising results on out-of-distribution detection.