Keywords: implicit graph neural networks, graph neural networks, implicit models, equilibrium models, graph representation learning
Abstract: Recently, implicit graph neural networks (GNNs) have been proposed to capture long-range dependencies in underlying graphs. In this paper, we introduce and justify two weaknesses of implicit GNNs: the constrained expressiveness due to their limited effective range for capturing long-range dependencies, and their lack of ability to capture multiscale information on graphs at multiple resolutions. To show the limited effective range of previous implicit GNNs, we first provide a theoretical analysis and point out the intrinsic relationship between the effective range and the convergence of iterative equations used in these models. To mitigate the mentioned weaknesses, we propose a multiscale graph neural network with implicit layers (MGNNI) which is able to model multiscale structures on graphs and has an expanded effective range for capturing long-range dependencies. We conduct comprehensive experiments for both node classification and graph classification to show that MGNNI outperforms representative baselines and has a better ability for multiscale modeling and capturing of long-range dependencies.
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