Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy grading, Sparse activations, Bag-of-features models, Trustworthy AI, Interpretable predictions
TL;DR: This paper presents an interpretable classification model which use a sparse activation heatmap to explain the decision
Abstract: Interpreting deep learning models typically relies on post-hoc saliency map techniques. However, these techniques often fail to serve as actionable feedback to clinicians, and they do not directly explain the decision mechanism. Here, we propose an inherently interpretable model that combines the feature extraction capabilities of deep neural networks with advantages of sparse linear models in interpretability. Our approach relies on straightforward but effective changes to a deep bag-of-local-features model (BagNet). These modifications lead to fine-grained and sparse class evidence maps which, by design, correctly reflect the model's decision mechanism. Our model is particularly suited for tasks which rely on characterising regions of interests that are very small and distributed over the image. In this paper, we focus on the detection of Diabetic Retinopathy, which is characterised by the progressive presence of small retinal lesions on fundus images. We observed good classification accuracy despite our added sparseness constraint. In addition, our model precisely highlighted retinal lesions relevant for the disease grading task and excluded irrelevant regions from the decision mechanism. The results suggest our sparse BagNet model can be a useful tool for clinicians as it allows efficient inspection of the model predictions and facilitates clinicians' and patients' trust.