You Only Live Once: Single-Life Reinforcement Learning via Learned Reward Shaping Download PDF

28 May 2022 (modified: 05 May 2023)DARL 2022Readers: Everyone
Keywords: reinforcement learning, autonomous reinforcement learning, adversarial imitation learning
TL;DR: We formalize the single-life RL problem setting, where given prior data, an agent must complete a novel task autonomously in a single trial, and propose an algorithm (QWALE) that leverages the prior data as guidance to complete the desired task.
Abstract: Reinforcement learning algorithms are typically designed to learn a performant policy that can repeatedly and autonomously complete a task, typically starting from scratch. However, many real-world situations operate under a different set of assumptions: the goal might not be to learn a policy that can do the task repeatedly, but simply to perform a new task successfully once, ideally as quickly as possible, and while leveraging some prior knowledge or experience. For example, imagine a robot that is exploring another planet, where it cannot get help or supervision from humans. If it needs to navigate to a crater that it has never seen before in search of water, it does not really need to acquire a policy for reaching craters reliably, it only needs to reach this particular crater once. It must do so without the benefit of episodic resets and tackle a new, unknown terrain, but it can leverage prior experience it acquired on Earth. We formalize this problem setting, which we call single-life reinforcement learning (SLRL), where an agent must complete a task once while contending with some form of novelty in a single trial without interventions, given some prior data. In this setting, we find that algorithms designed for standard episodic reinforcement learning can struggle, as they have trouble recovering from novel states especially when informative rewards are not provided. Motivated by this observation, we also propose an algorithm, $Q$-weighted adversarial learning (QWALE), that addresses the dearth of supervision by employing a distribution matching strategy that leverages the agent's prior experience as guidance in novel situations. Our experiments on several single-life continuous control problems indicate that methods based on our distribution matching formulation are 20-60% more successful because they can more quickly recover from novel, out-of-distribution states.
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